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[Rubber] The characteristics and use of rubber

[Rubber] The characteristics and use of rubber

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  • 发布时间:2018-05-17
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[Rubber] The characteristics and use of rubber

(Summary description)Basiccharacteristicsofrubbermaterials:1.Theelasticmodulusofrubberwithhighelasticityissmall,generally1-9.8Mpa.Ithaslargeelongationandelongation,canreachupto100%,stillexhibitsrecoverablecharacteristics,

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  • Time of issue:2018-05-17
  • Views:18
Basic characteristics of rubber materials:
1. The elastic modulus of rubber with high elasticity is small, generally 1-9.8Mpa. It has large elongation and elongation, can reach up to 100%, still exhibits recoverable characteristics, and can maintain elasticity over a wide temperature range (-50-+150 °C).
2. The viscoelastic rubber is a viscoelastic body. Due to the interaction between the macromolecules, the rubber is subjected to an external force, and the deformation is affected by conditions such as time and temperature, and there is obvious stress relaxation and creep phenomenon. Hysteresis loss occurs under periodic action such as vibration or alternating stress.
3, with cushioning damping rubber has a mitigating effect on the transmission of sound and vibration, can use this feature to prevent noise and vibration.
4. Electrically insulating rubber is an electrically insulating material like plastic. For example, natural rubber and butyl rubber and volume resistance can reach 10
5. Temperature-dependent polymer materials are generally affected by temperature. When the rubber is at a low temperature, it becomes hard and brittle in the glass state, and at high temperatures, it softens, melts, thermally oxidizes, thermally decomposes and burns.
6, with aging phenomenon like metal corrosion, wood decay, rock weathering, rubber will also age due to changes in environmental conditions, so that performance is deteriorated, service life is shortened.
7. The vulcanized rubber must be added with sulfur or other substances that can vulcanize (or crosslink) the rubber to crosslink the rubber macromolecule into a spatial network structure to obtain a rubber product with useful value, but the thermoplastic rubber does not need to be vulcanized. .
1. Natural rubber (NR) is mainly composed of rubber hydrocarbon (polyisoprene), containing a small amount of protein, water, resin acid, sugar and inorganic salts. It is a non-polar substance and it is soluble in non-polar. Solvent and oil. It has high elasticity, high tensile strength, excellent tear resistance and electrical insulation, good wear resistance and drought resistance, good processability, easy adhesion of other materials, and superior to most synthetic rubbers in terms of overall performance. Disadvantages are poor resistance to oxygen and ozone, easy to age and deteriorate; oil and solvent resistance is not good, in cyclohexane, gasoline, stupid, dissolved before vulcanization, swelling after vulcanization. Resistance to acid and alkali corrosion is low, resistant to 10% hydrofluoric acid, 20% hydrochloric acid, 30% sulfuric acid, 50% sodium hydroxide; heat resistance is not high. Operating temperature range: about -60 ° C ~ +80 ° C. Insulation and sheathing of tires, rubber shoes, hoses, tapes, wires and cables, and other general-purpose products. Particularly suitable for the manufacture of torsional vibration dampers, engine dampers, machine bearings, rubber-metal suspension components, diaphragms, molded products.
2. A copolymer of butadiene rubber (SBR) butadiene and styrene. Its performance is close to that of natural rubber. It is the most popular general-purpose synthetic rubber. It is characterized by wear resistance, aging resistance and heat resistance over natural rubber, and its texture is evener than natural rubber. Disadvantages are: low elasticity, poor resistance to flexing and tearing, large heat generation under repeated deformation, poor performance of oil, heat and resistance to special media; poor processing performance, especially self-adhesiveness, The strength of the glue is low. Operating temperature range: about -50 ° C ~ +100 ° C. It is mainly used to make tires, rubber sheets, hoses, rubber shoes and other general-purpose products instead of natural rubber.
3. Butadiene rubber (BR) is a cis-structured rubber polymerized from butadiene. It does not require mastication and is a polar substance. The advantages are: excellent elasticity and wear resistance, good aging resistance, excellent low temperature resistance, low calorific value under dynamic load, easy metal adhesion, good chemical stability, and resistance to corrosion of most chemicals except strong acid. . Disadvantages are low strength, poor tear resistance, poor processing properties and self-adhesiveness. Operating temperature range: about -60 ° C ~ +100 ° C. It is generally used in combination with natural rubber or styrene-butadiene rubber. It mainly produces tire treads, conveyor belts and special cold-resistant products.
4. Isoprene rubber (IR) is a cis-structure rubber obtained by polymerizing isoprene monomers. The chemical composition and three-dimensional structure are similar to those of natural rubber, and its properties are very close to that of natural rubber. Therefore, it is called synthetic natural rubber. It has most of the advantages of natural rubber. It is resistant to aging due to natural rubber. Its elasticity and strength are slightly lower than that of natural rubber. It has poor processing properties and high cost. Operating temperature range: about -50 ° C ~ +100 ° C can replace natural rubber to make tires, rubber shoes, hoses, tape and other general-purpose products.
5. Neoprene rubber (CR) is a polymer obtained by polymerizing chloroprene as a monomer emulsion. This rubber molecule contains chlorine atoms, so it has excellent resistance to oxygen and ozone, is non-flammable, self-extinguishing after ignition, oil, solvent, acid and alkali resistant, and resistant to aging and gas. Good adhesion and other advantages; its physical and mechanical properties are better than natural rubber, so it can be used as a general-purpose rubber or as a special rubber. The main disadvantages are poor cold resistance, large specific gravity, high relative cost, poor electrical insulation, easy sticking during processing, easy scorching and easy sticking. In addition, the raw rubber has poor stability and is difficult to store. Operating temperature range: about -45 ° C ~ +100 ° C. Mainly used in the manufacture of cable sheaths and various protective covers and protective covers that require high ozone resistance and aging resistance; oil- and chemical-resistant hoses, tapes and chemical linings; flame-resistant rubber products for underground mining, and various moldings. Products, seals, mats, adhesives, such as: building waterproof sheets, building seals, road joint filler materials, bridge support gaskets, wire sheaths, etc.
6. Butyl rubber (IIR) is an interpolymer of isobutylene and a small amount of isoprene or butadiene. The most important feature is good air tightness, good ozone and aging resistance, high heat resistance, good weather resistance, no need for domestic anti-aging agent, long-term working temperature below 130 °C; resistant to inorganic strong acids (such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid, etc.) And general organic solvents, good vibration absorption and damping characteristics, good chemical stability, and electrical insulation is also very good. The disadvantages are the worst elasticity, poor processing properties, slow vulcanization rate, and poor adhesion and oil resistance. Operating temperature range: about -40 ° C ~ +120 ° C. Mainly used as inner tube, water tire, balloon, wire and cable insulation, chemical equipment lining and anti-vibration products, heat-resistant conveyor belt, heat-resistant aging tape products.
7. Copolymer of butadiene rubber (NBR) butadiene and acrylonitrile. It is characterized by its excellent resistance to gasoline and aliphatic hydrocarbon oils, second only to polysulfide rubber, acrylates and fluoroelastomers, and superior to other general purpose rubbers. Good heat resistance, good air tightness, wear resistance and water resistance, and strong adhesion. The disadvantages are poor cold resistance and ozone resistance, low strength and elasticity, poor acid resistance, poor electrical insulation, and poor resistance to polar solvents. Operating temperature range: about -30 ° C ~ +100 ° C. Mainly used in the manufacture of various oil resistant products, such as hoses, sealing products.
8. A copolymer of hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) butadiene and acrylonitrile. It is obtained by fully or partially hydrogenating a double bond in butadiene of NBR. It is characterized by high mechanical strength and wear resistance. It is better than NBR when it is crosslinked with peroxide. Other properties are the same as those of nitrile rubber. The disadvantage is that the price is higher. Operating temperature range: about -30 ° C ~ +150 ° C. Mainly used for sealing products with oil and high temperature resistance.
9. Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPM\\EPDM) copolymer of ethylene and propylene, generally divided into binary ethylene propylene rubber and ethylene propylene diene monomer. It is characterized by excellent resistance to ozone, UV, weather and aging, and is the first in general rubber. Electrical insulation, chemical resistance, impact elasticity is very good, acid and alkali resistance, small specific gravity, high filling fit. Heat resistance up to 150 ° C, resistance to polar solvents - ketones, esters, etc., but not resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, other physical and mechanical properties slightly better than natural rubber and better than styrene-butadiene rubber. The disadvantage is that the self-adhesiveness and mutual adhesion are poor and difficult to bond. Operating temperature range: about -50 ° C ~ +150 ° C. Mainly used as chemical equipment lining, wire and cable sheathing, steam hose, heat-resistant conveyor belt, automotive rubber products and other industrial products.
10. Silicone rubber (Q) is a special rubber containing silicon and oxygen atoms in the main chain, and the main function is silicon. Its main features are high temperature resistance (up to 300 ° C) and low temperature resistance (lowest -100 ° C). It is the best cold and high temperature resistant rubber at present; it has excellent electrical insulation and high stability to thermal oxidation and ozone. Chemically inert. The disadvantage is that the mechanical strength is low, oil resistance, solvent resistance and acid and alkali resistance are poor, it is difficult to vulcanize, and the price is relatively expensive. Operating temperature: -60 ° C ~ +200 ° C. Mainly used in the production of high temperature resistant products (hose, seals, etc.), high temperature wire and cable insulation, because it is non-toxic and tasteless, also used in food and medical industry.
11. Fluororubber (FPM) is an organic elastomer obtained by copolymerization of a fluorine-containing monomer. Its characteristics are temperature resistant up to 300 °C, acid and alkali resistance, oil resistance is the best in oil resistant rubber, good resistance to radiation and high vacuum resistance; electrical insulation, mechanical properties, chemical resistance, ozone resistance, atmospheric resistance Good aging. The disadvantages are poor processability, high price and low cold resistance, and low elastic permeability. Operating temperature range: -20 ° C ~ +200 ° C. Mainly used in the defense industry to manufacture aircraft, rocket-resistant vacuum, high temperature, chemical resistant sealing materials, hoses or other parts and the automotive industry.
12. Polyurethane rubber (AU\\EU) is an elastomer obtained by polymerizing a polyester (or polyether) and a diisocyanate compound. It is characterized by good wear resistance and is the best among various rubbers; it has high strength, good elasticity and excellent oil resistance. It is also excellent in ozone resistance, aging resistance, and air tightness. The disadvantages are poor temperature resistance, poor water and alkali resistance, and poor solvent resistance to aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones, esters and alcohols. Operating temperature range: about -30 ° C ~ +80 ° C. Made of tires close to parts, gaskets, shock-proof products, and wear-resistant, high-strength and oil-resistant rubber products.
13. Acrylate rubber (ACM\\AEM) It is a polymer of ethyl acrylate or butyl acrylate. It is characterized by good heat and oil resistance and stable performance in lubricating oils containing sulfur, phosphorus and chlorine additives. At the same time, it is resistant to aging, oxygen and ozone, UV resistance and air tightness. The disadvantages are poor cold resistance, water resistance, steam resistance and organic and inorganic acids and alkalis. It is severely expanded in a water-soluble solution such as methanol, ethylene glycol or ketone ester. At the same time, the elasticity and wear resistance are poor, the electrical insulation is poor, and the processing performance is poor. Operating temperature range: about -25 ° C ~ +150 ° C. It can be used to manufacture oil-resistant, heat-resistant and aging-resistant products such as seals, hoses, chemical linings, etc.
14. Chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber (CSM), also known as Hypalon, is a polymer obtained by chlorination and sulfonation of polyethylene. Excellent resistance to ozone and aging, weather resistance is superior to other rubbers. Flame retardant, heat resistant, solvent resistant and resistant to most chemicals and acid and alkali resistant. Electrical insulation is acceptable, and wear resistance is similar to styrene butadiene rubber. Disadvantages are poor tear resistance and poor processing properties. Operating temperature range: about -20 ° C ~ +120 ° C. It can be used as a sealing material on ozone generators to manufacture oil-resistant seals, wire and cable sheaths, and oil-resistant rubber products and chemical linings.
15. Chloroether rubber (CO\\ECO) is a polymer obtained by homopolymerization of epichlorohydrin or copolymerization of epichlorohydrin and ethylene oxide. It is characterized by resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, alkali resistance, water resistance and aging resistance, and is excellent in ozone resistance, oil resistance, heat resistance and cold resistance.  Operating temperature range: about -20 ° C ~ +140 ° C. Can be used as hoses, seals, film and container linings, fuel tanks, rubber rollers, oil seals, water seals, etc.
16. Chlorinated polyethylene rubber (CM or CPE) is an elastic polymer made of polyethylene by a chlorine substitution reaction. The performance is close to that of chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber. It is characterized by good fluidity and easy processing. It has excellent weather resistance, ozone resistance and corona resistance, and is good in heat resistance, acid and alkali resistance and oil resistance. The disadvantage is that the elasticity is poor, the compression deformation is large, and the electrical insulation is low. Operating temperature range: about -20 ° C ~ +120 ° C. Wire and cable sheathing, hose, tape, rubber lining, etc.
: Nitrile rubber (NBR) is a polymer obtained by emulsion copolymerization of butadiene and acrylonitrile. Nitrile rubber is nicknamed for its excellent oil resistance, and its oil resistance is second only to polysulfide rubber and acrylate rubber. And fluororubber, in addition, nitrile rubber also has good wear resistance, aging resistance and air tightness, but ozone resistance, electrical insulation and cold resistance are relatively poor, and electrical conductivity is better. Therefore, it is widely used in the rubber industry. The use of nitrile rubber is mainly used in oil resistant products such as various sealing products. Others are used as a PVC modifier and as a flame retardant product with PVC, as a structural adhesive with phenolic, and as an antistatic good rubber product.
R&D history
Butadiene rubber is a special synthetic rubber which is currently used in the largest amount, and is a polymer elastomer obtained by emulsion copolymerization of butadiene and acrylonitrile as monomers. In the early years of the outbreak of the Second World War, a variety of synthetic rubbers were developed. Germany found a copolymerized rubber-butadiene rubber of butadiene-acrylonitrile, and found that this rubber is superior to natural rubber in terms of oil resistance, gasoline resistance and high temperature aging resistance.
Production scale
In 2000, the world NBR production capacity was about 610 kt / a, accounting for 4.7% of the total synthetic rubber production capacity. From 1996 to 2000, the world's NBR consumption increased by 2.9% annually.
Production technology
The emulsion polymerization process used in NBR industrial production has long been matured and shaped. There are 3 sets of production facilities in China, of which 1 sets produce hard rubber, with a total production capacity of 30 kt/a. The 15kt/a soft rubber device introduced by Lanzhou Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. from Zeon Japan was put into operation in April 2000. In 2000, China's demand for synthetic rubber accounted for 4% of the total synthetic rubber market, namely 36 to 38 kt, and the output for the year was 10.8 kt.
Nitrile rubber (NBR) has a polar nitrile group on the molecular chain, which gives it excellent properties such as oil resistance and heat aging resistance. It has a wide temperature range of use. It is mainly used in the production of oil resistant rubber products and is widely used in the automotive industry. , aerospace, oil extraction, chemical, textile, wire and cable, building materials, etc., its consumption accounts for about 3% of the total amount of synthetic rubber.
R&D trend
In order to make NBR performance more in line with the requirements of different products, countries have developed and produced new NBR varieties with special properties, such as hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), powdered nitrile rubber (PNBR), carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR). Liquid nitrile rubber, etc., make NBR products serialized and functionalized.
Introduction of nitrile rubber properties
Nitrile rubber
Referred to as NBR. A synthetic rubber prepared by copolymerization of butadiene and acrylonitrile. It is a synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil (especially alkane oil) and good aging resistance. The content of acrylonitrile (%) in the nitrile rubber is five kinds such as 42 to 46, 36 to 41, 31 to 35, 25 to 30, and 18 to 24. The more acrylonitrile content, the better the oil resistance, but the cold resistance is correspondingly reduced. It can be used for a long time in air at 120 ° C or in oil at 150 ° C. In addition, it has good water resistance, air tightness and excellent bonding properties. Widely used in the manufacture of various oil-resistant rubber products, a variety of oil-resistant gaskets, gaskets, casings, flexible packaging, soft rubber hoses, printing and dyeing rubber rollers, cable rubber materials, etc., in the automotive, aviation, petroleum, copying and other industries become essential Elastic material. Nitrile rubber was first industrialized in Germany in 1935. Since the 1980s, the annual world production of nitrile rubber is about 400 kt, accounting for 3% of the total output of synthetic rubber, ranking seventh.

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